Electrogravidynamical model of  UFO, tornado and tropical hurricane 
by V.I.Merkulov

(Institute of Theoretical and Applied Physics of Siberian Branch of Russian Academy  of Sciences)

e-mail: merkulov@itam.nsc.ru


On the cover of the April 1998 issue of the Russian Academy of Sciences Journal Science in Russia, a key proposition for the following synopsis  "a vacuum is not really empty" was published.
Although the journal is Russian, it doesnít mean that this formulated declaration is not limited to just Russians. Rather, let us recall the ether model, which was in circulation in the last century and served as the physical basis for the compilation of the equations of electrodynamics - Maxwellís equations. Later, in the 1930ís when the ether model was already rejected, European physicists, according to an account made by one of them, W. Weiskopf, were interested in the polarization of a vacuum subjected to an electric field, in the creation of particles and antiparticles from the vacuum [3].

I.1. Electrogravitational dynamics of a vacuum domain 
To begin, a vacuum is some kind of polarized physical medium, which is characterized by distinct values of magnetic permeability and electrical permittivity, and also by the final speed of light associated with it. The electromagnetic processes in this medium are described by Maxwellís equations. But how is a situation with the gravitational processes?

At the end of the last century, another English physicist, Oliver Heavyside, published a small dissertation work with the characteristic title "About the Electromagnetic and Gravitational Analogy" [4]. This was the first published research that laid the foundation for the general theory of electrogravitational dynamics. In line with the analogy of electric charge and electric field, in gravidynamics mass is regarded as a gravitational charge, which creates a gravitational field. In electrodynamical processes both an electric field and a magnetic field, without which oscillations are not possible, play a role. To complete the analogy for gravidynamics, we need to introduce some kind of new field. Any particle is characterized by four basic attributes: electric charge, mass, magnetic moment, and spin. Three well known fields, which are induced by particles, correspond to the first three basic characteristics. It is then natural to accept that the fourth field should be generated by spin, and therefore it was called by V.L.Dyatlov [11] the spin field. In this case the analogy for electromagnetic fields will lie in the existence of gravity-spin waves. The gravidynamic equations, being similar to electrodynamic equations, describe these oscillations.

When like electrical charges repel one another, during which their gravitational analog - mass - experiences attraction, the sign in the equations changes and imparts new qualities to the gravity-spin waves.

In the work of V. L. Dyatlov [5] it is shown that heat energy, more commonly referred to as low potential energy , is capable of being transformed into gravity-spin energy, and that energy, in turn, can changed into mechanical and electromagnetic energy, i.e., into high potential energy. Thus, in contrast from electromagnetic processes, gravity-spin waves are capable of lowering entropy.

The enumerated properties of gravity-spin waves would deserve a great deal of attention, if they carried any significant amount of energy in themselves. The American physicist O.D. Efimenko, who made an important contribution to electrogravitational dynamics, mentioned one such example in his monograph [6]. A ring, with a mass of 1kg and a radius of 1 m and which is oscillating with an amplitude of 1 rad and at a frequency of 1 Hz creates a gravitational wave with an amplitude of 1,210-36 m/s2 and a spin wave with an amplitude of 410-45 1/s, the power of the wave equaling 2,310-45 W.
In any polarized medium, including a physical vacuum, subjecting the medium to some sort of field cause an induction field to result. In electrodynamics, as in gravidynamics, it was always thought, that induction is determined by the corresponding field only. V. L. Dyatlov brought forth a hypothesis, according to which electrical and magnetic induction in any medium depends on not only the corresponding electrical and magnetic fields, but also on the gravitational and spin fields with their own permeability coefficients [1]. The reciprocal of this is that gravitational and spin induction is determined not only by gravitational and spin fields, but also by electrical and magnetic fields. As a result, cross-linkages arise between gravity-spin and electromagnetic waves.

As all experimental physics has shown, the coefficients of the cross-linkages for the processes in the accustomed homogeneous vacuum, if they exist at all, are so small that we cannot observe the linkages between the electromagnetic and gravity-spin processes. However, processes exist, in which these linkages appear to be strong. It is this explanation of such processes that we will soon discuss.

I.2. Equations of electrogravitational dynamics and mechanics of continuous mediums

  Linear equations describing simultaneously flowing electromagnetic, gravity-spin, and mechanical processes are recorded below [1,11]:

The four stated equations represent Maxwellís equations for classical physics for the vector-functions of the intensity of electrical and magnetic fields E, H, for the vector-functions of electrical and magnetic inductions D, B.
They are completed by an algebraic correlation, which corresponds to Ohmís law, and by another two algebraic relations connecting inductions and intensities:

In these expressions are the vector-functions of gravitational Eg and spin Hg field intensities, which are justified by Heavysideís equations. Electrical permittivity e1 and magnetic permeability Ķ1 differ from zero only in the heterogeneous physical vacuum of  Dyatlov. For a homogeneous physical vacuum these values equate to zero and we obtain Maxwellís equations for classical physics, which are not connected in any way with Heavysideís equations.

We will notice, that the additional components in Ohmís law, generated by the conduction of gravitational charge and the mechanical transport of electrical charge, are negligibly small in comparison with the first components, corresponding to the classical form of Ohmís law.
Now we should write down Heavysideís equations for the gravitational and spin fields and inductions Dg, Bg :

The following algebraic expressions are justified for both gravitational current and fields:

In contrast with electrical current, gravitational current basically is determined by a mechanical transfer of gravitational charge, the density of which is the mass density, therefore we place the corresponding current at zero.

Because transfer velocity v enters into the equations of electrogravitational dynamics, in order to complete this system of equations (1)-(14) we need to include equations of the mechanics of continuous mediums:

  As a result, keeping equation (6) in mind, we obtain the below equation:

In another combination of these same equations we can obtain a correlation for the induction of a gravitational field:

Working through analogous transforms of equations (4) and (9), and now multiplying them by the corresponding magnetic permeabilities, we obtain the following:

We now look to the system of equations (6) and (13), and express the electrical intensity through induction of electrical and gravitational fields:

Here the relations are used :

The transforms that we have worked out allow us to write down the equations of electrogravitational dynamics in terms of the induction of fields:







Mechanical equations (15) and (16) which did not change at all allow us to express the amount of movement through induction.

I.3. Reductions of unknowns

Equations (23) and (27) will automatically be satisfied, if we express unknown vectors B and Bg through new unknown vectors, named vector potentials, following the model:

Substituting these relations into equations (24) and (26) results in the following correlations:

From here it reasons that scalar functions j, jg, called potentials, satisfying the below correlations, should exist:

The last two expressions constitute the solution of equations (24) and (26). They allow us to exclude the electrical and gravitational induction from equations (21) and (25):

We look now at equations (22) and (28), which can be now written thus:

Second-order operators, as it is well known, are transformed thus:

Remaining somewhat arbitrary in the choice of potentials, we will require that they are satisfied.

II.1. Unidentified flying objects

  In the given context we will equate the word unidentified as unexplained. Questions concerning the identification of various observed objects is not the subject of the given work. Entering in the category of unexplained events is ball lightning, the various modifications of which, according to our conception, represent a UFO. To explain such a UFO we need to discuss the phenomenological model of a physical vacuum.
The model of a medium consisting of any material according to Ya. P. Terletskii [8] suggests the presence of not only the existence of positive mass, but of negative mass also. The elementary particles of Terletskís medium - quadrigae - consist of a particle-antiparticle pair with a positive mass and a particle-antiparticle pair with a negative mass. It is natural that the particlesí masses sum to zero. It is these very particles - Terletskiiís quadrigae - that make up the vacuum model according to Dyatlov.

While trying to explain such strange events, like ball lightning and other similar phenomena joined by the term UFO, which are currently unexplainable by modern science, Dyatlov provided still another hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, in discontinuities, which he called vacuum domains, the cross-linkages have an order of one [1]. From reading a later publication of V. l. Dyatlov, which was encouraged by the research of A. N. Dmitriev, who for a long period of time studied a special group of anomalous occurrences, which he called natural self-shining formations, not only because of eyewitness accounts and reports made by ADA headquarters, but also due to results which were repeatedly observed. These phenomena and research are explained in detail in publications [9], [10].

The property of a vacuum domain to become polarized in an electrical field allows it to add a certain amount of gas possessing polarized properties. And although these linkages are weak and are easily disrupted, in many cases these very linkages materialize a vacuum domain.
The presence of positive and negative gravitational charges gives the vacuum a polarization property in a gravitational field, that, apart from everything else, permits an explanation of the nature of a gravitational current of displacement, arising in gravitational waves.
In his work [11] V. L. Dyatlov gives a high assessment of gravitational polarization of a physical vacuum in the gravitational field of the Earth. By this account, 108 kg of negative mass is concentrated onto the upper surface of a cubic volume which is 1 decimeter in size and subjected to a gravitational field, whereas the same amount positive mass is concentrated onto the lower surface of the cubic volume.

To concure with the observations made of the properties of ball lightning, one must assume that only some elementary vacuum particles can have defects, which supply themselves with the property of gravitational polarization. In the remaining space the vacuum remains neutral. These defects, being built into the structure of a homogeneous physical vacuum, provide themselves with some kind of polarized responsiveness, the height of which depends on the concentration of defects.

Using the observations taken above ball lightning (poltergeist effect) of the sufficient negative mass generated to turn over dishes, but not enough to turn over furniture, we should accept the strength of the gravitational polarization to be equal to 1 kg. A physical vacuum will possess such a polarization with a concentration of defects measuring 10-8.

The model of local defects proposes that the defects themselves are uniformly distributed in some sort of limited volume, i.e. in the vacuum domain, and that, which we interpret as the motion of the vacuum, represents the migration of defects in the structure homogeneous vacuum. Judging by the behavior of the ball lightning, it follows to assume, that in small volumes defects form a comparatively stable structure, which moves along the gradients of the field to which it is subjected, according to the homogeneous vacuum, as a whole entity. When dealing with larger volumes acted upon by strong fields, the vacuum domain can change its form, e.g., it stretches out, and the concentration of defects during this change can increase.

We are easily lead to describe the defects and the structure, arising in the vacuum domain, based on the similarities found in a crystal. However, while doing this, one should keep in mind that defects in a crystal are vacancies, but the crystal structure is preserved on account of the part of the crystal without the defects. In a vacuum domain defects, generating discontinuities according to Dyatlovís model, represent the products of the splitting of elementary particles - Terletskiiís quadrigae. Here these material defects are equipped to form a stable structure, which represents the body of the vacuum domain. In the internal volume of the polarized medium at any degree of the polarization charges of one sign turn out to be compensated by charges of the opposite sign and only on the surface of the volume appear uncompensated charges, which determine many of the properties of the vacuum domain.

The hypothesis about the interconnections and about the defects in the vacuum, as with any hypothesis, supports itself with the method of proving it. It allows us to build a physical and material model of the process, the comparison of which with observations permits judging of the veracity of the hypothesis in accordance with a real event.

The vacuum domains come to us from the cosmos. Solving the electrostatics problem demonstrates how, by measure of the closeness to Earth, the domain electrically polarized [11]. At an altitude of 15,000 km the potential difference attains the breakdown value. The resulting discharge leads to a thermal explosion. The vacuum domains itself does not suffer from any damage, but the gas trapped by the domain, either partially or completely scatters.

After the explosion the domain, under the influence of a gravitational field gradient, approaches the Earth and effects signals on the ADA radio systems of all countries, and is called an angel or a sprite, depending on the language spoken by the radio operators. A descriptive picture may be drawn from the understanding of the reality of so-called cosmic ice [12]. In the volume of the vacuum domain Maxwellís and Heavysideís equations form a connected system. The direct solution of this system, presented in the following chapter, finds a mutual transformation of the gravity-spin and electromagnetic waves. As applied to the cylindrical water wave the picture is schematically shown in Figure 1.

Fig. 1.

Modeling the sinusoid according to the amplitude corresponds to a propagating electrical wave, which can cause phosphorescence in the gas present. The magnetic wave orthogonal to the electric wave does not happen for the sake of simplicity. The specific character of this electromagnetic wave lies in the fact that its amplitude and, respectively, its energy are periodically brought to a value of zero according to the spatial coordinates. The electromagnetic wave is transformed into the gravity-spin wave, which has the same appearance, but it is phase-shifted such that their total energy is constantly conserved. In contrast to the interference caused by the close proximity of two waves identical in nature, in the given case the antinode of the wave doesnít move. The transverse planes, passing through the nodes, can project outward as the borders of a fixed vacuum domain.

We compare this computational model with the observations. Among the many models of ball lightning the model of  Nobel laureate P. L. Kapitsa [13] is presented as the most interesting. According to his model ball lightning represents a resonator of electromagnetic waves. This model did not obtain the distinct properties of the volume occupied by ball lightning, and of the source of energy which excites and supports oscillations.

As we can see, the vacuum domain in combination with an incident gravity-spin wave makes the model of Kapitsa complete. During this time the same model attests to the existence of vacuum defects, to the benefit of the accepted hypothesis.

Available pictures of jagged lightning [14] exhibit a surprising coincidence with the picture, represented in Figure 1.

A vacuum domain in a gravitational field of the Earth is subject to gravitational polarization, that creates a strong localized change in the gravitational field, which is sufficient to turn over dishes or move furniture. In combination with this capability to pass through a wall or a closed window and to carry an electrical charge, a vacuum domain can fully explain all phenomena ascribed to poltergeist. 

In several descriptions of rays, emitted by "flying saucers" is mentioned their ability to penetrate non-transparent objects. In Figure 4 is shown the schematic, explaining this event. The gravity-spin phasing of oscillations, for which all objects are transparent, falls on the object. Then the gravity-spin waves become visible electromagnetic waves.

As applied to an ellipsoidal volume, the picture of the vertical antinode and node locations of the electromagnetic wave has a view shown in Fig.2.




II.2. Tornado Phenomenology

Tornado  is a violently rotating funnel pendant from a cumuli form cloud. Brooks [15] proposed ,and it became a common conviction,  that a funnel is a part of a parent cloud , being similar in structure and dynamics to a small tropical hurricane with a spiral structure and itís own eye. Here the parent cloud serves as the source of energy and substance for the funnel, cloud being able to exist without  a funnel, whether the funnel cannot.
In connection with this concept, the main works on mathematical and physical description  of tornado belong to the parent cloud. This approach seems to be completely justified taking into consideration that linear dimensions of a parent cloud  are three orders of magnitude larger than a funnel.
We may and we have to agree with it, but let us not discard the following observation of Wobus [16].  A funnel left the cloud and moved forward.  Soon a new cloud formed above it , reaching 10 km height. For several hours intense lightning  were seen in this new cloud. There is another observation, now from near Shanghai:  Not far from a boat a spray appeared on a sea surface; suddenly a rotating column formed of it, being about 10 m wide and 6 m high. The column began to grow rapidly. At first there were no clouds above it, but later a cloud formed, getting  dark color. The column connected it with the sea.
As we see, these observations preserve the relation between  cloud and funnel , but reverse itís order.
Numerous observations of parent cloud indicated the existence long  horizontal vortices in it , the vertical funnels being their extension.[17]. This  fact waits for itís dynamic explanation. What is the origin of the inner momentum turning  kinetic vector of horizontal rotation to a vector of vertical rotation ?
The parent cloud has a three-story structure with rotation in horizontal plane , with middle and lower layer rotating in opposite directions [16], [17].
The interior hollow of a funnel has a clearly defined air walls, with lightning flashing between them. or water surface, then the action of current sharply displays itself. At the same time , when a funnel doesnít touch the ground, thereís no vertical flow. In 1951 in Texas a funnel passed over an observer at 6 meter height , the interior having diameter about 130 m with walls of  3 meter width. Inside the hollow there was a brilliant cloud. There was no vacuum inside, because  it was easy to breath . The walls were rotating with a very high speed, ant the rotation might be seen up to the top of the column. A bit later the funnel touched the neighborís house and immediately took it off [20].
This  description is  similar to many others [21], [22], [23] and require the explanation of the fact that rotation of the air necessarily leads to decrease of pressure. Why, being 6m above the ground, the funnel end causes neither damage nor intense air motion, while, upon touching the ground,  destroys and moves off a house?
Direct measurements show that there is a low pressure area inside the funnel ( 951 mb, Topica June 8, 1966). Such pressure decrease may be resulted  at air rotation speed of about 100 m/sec and should make the breath difficult. Why the funnel uncovers the river bed sucking out itís water, while at the same time the observers even do not notice a wind when the funnel passes above them?

The air flow inside the funnel is directed downward and reaches high velocities, while in the walls the air is spiraling up with velocities about 100-200 m/sec.
In [21] Flora writes that the speed differences between the wind in funnel and steady air  on itís periphery may be so abrupt that they cause striking events.
A funnel uprooted the apple tree, tearing it to pieces. A beehive standing a couple of meters from it was left safe [24].
A two-story timber house was taken off with itís inhabitants and torn to pieces.  A staircase of three stairs led to the door with a bench leaning against it. Both, bench and staircase were not moved. The funnel also torn off to wheels of a car standing by, not moving the car itself , while an oil lamp which stood near on a table under a tree , still kept burning [25].

Direct wind speed measurements lack mainly because of instruments wreckage . Indirect estimates give different magnitudes from 200 to 1300 km/h . Such range of magnitudes is explainable because estimates belong to different funnels at different stages of their existence.

The ability of objects to penetrate the other ones is also being referred to high rotation speeds. A small pebble punctures a glass like a bullet without forming fractures. One board penetrates the other without shattering it. A timber house wall is found punctured by an old charred plank , with itís porous tip staying  undamaged. A clover leaf was found pressed into a hard stucco wall. A 1.5 inches gate frame was found punctured by a piece of wood [26].

When a funnel touches the ground or water surface, a pillar of dust or water arises at the funnelís foot and then falls down to the earth, forming a cascade. By Wegenerís opinion this dust or water cascade exists due to a circular vortex appearing around the funnelís foot. Sometimes the cascadeís height reaches 2/3 of the funnelís height, and sometimes itís width may exceed the funnel height. Both these cases cannot be explained by the funnel collision with the ground or water surface. Sometimes the funnel is surrounded by a second wall, forming a collar or envelope, also rotating with high speed.

Sometimes, but rarely, the funnel has large round thickenings making it look like beads [27].
Almost always, especially in the first stages , the funnel touches the ground only at separate points and moves jumpwise .
Crossing a river , a funnel pulls up such a quantity of water, that it uncovers the river bed, forming a trench in the water. Such phenomena were seen on Mississippi and Moscow rivers. On Rhine, where depth was 25 m , the trench was 7 meters deep [28].
Tornadoes may lift and transport people and animals at 4-10 km distances , sometimes keeping them alive. One inch  mollusks were moved 160 km [26] , but did fell upon the ground one hour before the cloudís coming. On June 17,1940 in Meschery village of Gorky region, Russia tornado poured out about a thousand XIV century silver coins. The coins were falling from the cloud, but not from the funnel itself. The treasure was transported at several kilometers and was poured out at a compact area [28].
Irving 1879 tornado came across a new railroad bridge 75 m long and weighting 108 tons. It lifted it up and turn into a roll. When funnel destroyed a large stone school building, the fragments were rotating fast, but were not thrown out.
A large timber church with 50 people in it was moved 6 meters, no one was killed. In 1963 a funnel transported a house with 10 inhabitants at 400 m distance, all stayed alive [28].

The funnel , when itís not touching the ground, emits buzzing or hissing noise. Faye [Fa] describes several cases when tornado was accompanied by ball lightning. Sometime short and wide sheet lightning surround a funnel. Sometime all the surface of a funnel shines a strange yellow glow. Sometime observers describe a bluish ball-like formations like ball lightning, but much larger, visible in a cloud. Sometime a slowly moving fire columns are seen. [VoM, Vo60,Fr ] . Jones  describes  a pulse generator - some center of electric activity looking as a round bright blue spot in a parent cloud appearing 30-90 minutes before a funnel [31].

 II.3. Anomalies of tornado 
 An anomalous phenomenon is a phenomenon which can't be explained within the limits of the conventional conceptions. It raises questions but doesn't give answers. The tornado phenomenogy above, shows the anomality of its manifestations. Let us list briefly the questions raised by it: The study of tornado is a search for answers to the formulated questions.

II.4. Mechanism of tornado

The absence of answers in the limits of traditional conception sets us to turn to  a new conception of tornado.
The numerous evidences of the association tornado with ball lightning, which is according to our conception nothing else as a defect of the physical vacuum, allow to  attract the same model of a polarisation medium for an explanation of tornado. In this case a spin polarisation will play the greatest role among all possible polarisation properties of a physical vacuum.
    In this connection let us recall  the experiment of Einstein-de-Haas where  rotation of a  ferromagnetic placed in a constant magnetic field was demonstrated. This effect is explained by the fact that spins of a ferromagnetic initially oriented in an arbitrary way, under the action of a magnetic field have obtained a  primary orientation in a field direction. And if in an initial state  a  summary momentum of all spins  equaled to zero then in a magnetic field  it  had some non-zero value. According to the momentum theorem this leads to the rotation of a crystalline lattice in a direction opposite to spins. Beyond that point the inner moments of spins cause tangential stresses generating the torsional deformation of a ferromagnetic.
 It is interesting to note that in this experiment the microscopic processes which are studied only by the quantum mechanics manifested themselves in a macroscopic process.
    This well known effect didn't draw attention of neither physicists nor  technicians for the reason that the torsion stresses are very small. A completely different  situation obtains when a medium is a vacuum domain. According to our model a parent cloud of tornado beside its observable part has an unobservable part in the form of a vacuum domain. Under a joint action of gravitational and electrical field, which in a  storm-cloud achieves a value in a hundreds of millions of volts, thin long vacuum domains  with high density of defects are being stretched out from a domain. Spin polarisation of such a domain causes the rotation of a tornado's funnel. The calculations made by V.L.Dyatlov as applied to a vacuum with 100% defect density show that tangential stresses can achieve in it  hundreds of kilograms per centimeter [11].
In the air when a funnel doesn't touch solid objects, unstable momentum is compensated by the rotation of a funnel and the air connected  with this funnel. And in a solid body these momenta cause the large tangential stresses which are sufficient for cutting off the wheels of a car or for turning a brick church from the west to the east.
    A positive mass localized on a lower end of a funnel explains a fast extension of a funnel and a subsequent blow against the surface of the earth or water.
    A vacuum domain as well as a vacuum doesn't have the conductivity of  self-gravitational current, it doesn't possess  a free gravitational charges. Therefore while touching the surface only the surface gravitational charges go in the ground. At that a funnel is detached from the ground. Whereupon the process of polarisation again extends  a funnel and it again touches the ground. In such a way it may be explained an observable dotted contact of a funnel with the earth.
The energy source as in the experiment of Einstein-de-Haas  is  energy of the magnetic field, in this case -  energy of the polarisation. Thus a gravitational energy is transformed into a spin energy.
    A cloud always rises through a height of 20 km above a funnel of tornado. Since an upper boundary of  the troposphere passing in a middle latitudes at a height of 10-11 km confines all thermobaric processes in the atmosphere, a manifestation of tornado at such a height can't have a meteorological explanation, but it can have a gravidynamical explanation. A stretched and strongly polarized vacuum domain contains at its upper end a large positive mass and positive electrical charge. And  both charges repel from the earth and rushes together with the air outside the troposphere. The entrapped moisture makes a domain visible.
    The most widespread and the most inexplicable manifestation of tornado as a picking of  solid objects by soft ones
( straws pick  boards, chips pick trunks, a board penetrates a wall of a house, a thick steel plate) also can be explained by the accepted model, see Fig.5.

Under the action of the gravitational field of the Earth a gravitational charge is accumulated on the thin ends of different objects. It rushes to the gravitational charge created by the Earth on the surface of a house or  tree. The charge density at some concentration of defects can be sufficient for a puncturing the firm objects. A charge carrier is carried along in a made aperture. It's solidity  doesn't play any role.
By the same mechanism may be explained the fact why a maple leafe was found to be pressed in a hard stucco. If one could set a laboratory experiment for the demonstration of gravitational charges, one can't  invent the better way of manifestation of their effect than in this experiment.
    The probability that  a board by its end hits  a palm trunk is very small but howerever it differs from zero, but the probability that all boards pick  palms in such a way that a palm is always in the middle of a board equals to zero.
But if to accept that an equipotential of a gravitational field passes along a palm, then a hit of a board in a palm and a stop of a board just in its middle  becomes no longer accidental.
    The positive gravitational charges originating on the lower surface of a parent cloud allow to keep and to transport not only silver coins and Amphibia but also large masses of water extracted from reservoirs.
    The gravitational polarisation of a tornado's column allows to explain why fast rotated bricks from the destroyed school were stacked  in a high hillock in a center of the area formed by a school foundation.
            The positive gravitational charges originated on the lower end of a column cause the same polarisation on the earth surface, in this particular case -  in the  foundation of the school. The attraction of these charges  has compensated a centrifugal force and gathered all bricks in a center of a column.

The following chapters are being translated:

II.5. Tropical hurricanes



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